买年货：Do Spring Festival shopping
Chinese New Year custom culture has a long history. Various Chinese New Year customs have been developed all over the country. The North and the South are quite different and each has its own school. However, the preparation of New Year's Goods and the delivery of New Year's gifts are "necessary" for almost the whole country. Chinese families buy a lot of "New Year's Goods". Spring Festival couplets, lucky characters, new clothes and food during the Spring Festival (the market is mostly closed). Holding New Year's Goods is an important activity for Chinese people to celebrate the Spring Festival.
贴春联：Post new year's scrolls
On the 28th, 29th or 30th of the year, every household sticks "Nian Hong", which is also called Spring Festival couplet. According to the records of "Jade Candle Treasure Book" and "Yan Jing Sui Shi Ji", the original form of Spring Festival couplets is what people call "peach charm". After the Tang Dynasty, in addition to the former Shen Tea and Yu Lei generals, Qin Shubao and Lieutenant Chi Gong were regarded as the gate gods of the Tang Dynasty. Spring couplets are also called door-pasting couplets, spring-pasting couplets, couplets, couplets, peach symbols and so on. They describe the background of the times in neat, dual, concise and exquisite words and express good wishes. They are unique literary forms in China. Every Spring Festival, whether in urban or rural areas, every household should select a red spring couplet to paste on the door, to increase the festive atmosphere. It is said that this custom began to prevail in the Ming Dynasty. By the Qing Dynasty, the ideological and artistic quality of Spring Festival couplets had greatly improved.
剪窗花：Cut window flower
In the folk people also like to paste various paper-cuts on the windows - window flowers. Window decoration not only sets off the festive atmosphere, but also integrates decoration, appreciation and practicability. While pasting Spring Festival couplets, some families have to paste the word "happiness" on their doors, walls and lintels. Spring Festival sticking the word "Fu" is a long-standing folk custom in China. The word "luck" refers to luck and good luck. It expresses people's yearning for a happy life and wishes for a better future. Some people simply put the word "happiness" upside down to indicate that "happiness has arrived" and "happiness has fallen (arrived)". In fact, the word "Fu" can not be pasted upside down, especially at the gate, where the word "Fu" should be pasted correctly. Folk people also have the word "Fu" carefully drawn into various patterns, such as longevity star, longevity peach, carp leaping Longmen, Wugu Fengdeng, Longfeng Chengxiang and so on.
挂年画：Hanging New Year pictures
Spring Festival hanging New Year pictures are also common in urban and rural areas. The thick black and colorful New Year pictures add a lot of prosperous and happy atmosphere to millions of families. New Year's pictures are an ancient folk art in China. They reflect the simple customs and beliefs of the people and place their hopes on the future. New Year pictures, like Spring Festival couplets, originate from "door gods".
With the rise of wood printing, the content of New Year's pictures is not limited to monotonous themes such as door gods. It has become rich and colorful. In some New Year's paintings workshops, some classic colorful New Year's pictures such as "Three Stars of Fortune and Life", "Heavenly Official Blessing", "Five Grain Fengdeng", "Six Animals Prosperity", "Welcoming Spring and Receiving Fortune" have been produced to meet people's good wishes of celebrating and praying for the New Year. There are three important origins of Chinese New Year Pictures: Taohuawu in Suzhou, Yangliuqing in Tianjin and Weifang in Shandong, which have formed three major schools of Chinese New Year Pictures with their own characteristics. In the early years of the Republic of China, Zheng Mantuo in Shanghai combined the calendar and the New Year's pictures. This is a new form of New Year's pictures. This new year's picture, which combines two and one, developed into a calendar and has become popular throughout the country.
There are many kinds of spring couplets and many sticking methods. According to their places of use, they can be divided into door center, frame pair, horizontal cloak, spring strip, fighting square and so on. "Door heart" is affixed to the central part of the upper part of the door panel; "frame pair" is affixed to the left and right doorframes; "horizontal cloak" is affixed to the door-mei's horizontal wood; "spring strip" is affixed to the corresponding place according to different contents; "Doujin" is also called "door leaf", which is a square diamond, mostly affixed to furniture and shadow wall.
年夜饭：Family reunion dinner
New Year's Eve dinner is also called New Year's dinner, Lunar New Year's dinner, Lunar New Year's dinner and so on, especially the Lunar New Year's Eve dinner. New Year's Eve dinner originates from the ancient year-end sacrificial rites. The annual New Year's Eve dinner is extremely important for Chinese people. A family of people, old and young, respects and loves each other, tells stories about each other, sits around the dining table and feels very happy. People attach great importance to the "reunion dinner" on New Year's Eve. In addition to family reunion and family reunion, they also pray for the safety of a family, and those who work outside rush back to celebrate the New Year. Lunar New Year's dinner is an important part of the Spring Festival. It is not only rich and colorful, but also exquisite. Before the Lunar New Year's dinner, ancestors worship ancestors or gods, and the incense candles are burned before the meal is served. On the table, there are chicken, fish, oyster sauce, lettuce and bamboo for good fortune.
New Year's money is one of the customs of the Spring Festival. After the New Year's dinner, the elders should distribute the money prepared in advance to the younger generation. It is said that New Year's money can suppress evil spirits, and the younger generation can live safely through the year. New Year's money in folk culture implies to ward off evil spirits and protect peace. The original intention of New Year's money is to suppress evil and exorcise evil spirits. Because people think that children are vulnerable to sneaking, they use lucky money to drive away evil spirits.
Historically, New Year's money is divided into many kinds. Generally, it is distributed by the elders to the younger generation in the countdown to the New Year, which expresses pressure and contains the elders'concern and sincere wishes for the younger generation. Another kind is given to the elders by the younger generation. The "age" of this New Year's money refers to the age, which is intended to look forward to the elder's longevity. The earliest traceable lucky money in the Han Dynasty, also known as winning money, did not circulate on the market, but was coined into the form of toys, with the function of evading evil spirits.
New Year's Eve is one of the most important activities of the New Year's Eve. The custom of observing the New Year's Eve has a long history. The folk custom of keeping the lights burning all night on New Year's Eve is mainly manifested as "burning the lights to shine the year". That is to say, lighting the candles all over the New Year's Eve, lighting the candles all over the house, and lighting the candles under the bed, which is called "illuminating the waste". It is said that after such illumination, the wealth of the family in the coming year will be enriched. In ancient times, there were different customs between the north and the south. In ancient times, the custom of keeping up the old age in the North was mainly staying up late. As stated in the Book of Local Conditions written by Zhou Chu in the Jin Dynasty, on New Year's Eve, people gave each other gifts, which were called "feeding the old"; gathering young people and congratulating them on their perfection, which was called "dividing the old"; staying awake until the dawn of the day, which was called "keeping the old". In some places, on New Year's Eve, the whole family gathers together, eats New Year's Eve dinner, lights candles or oil lamps, sits around the stove chatting, waiting for the time of leaving the old and welcoming the new, and watches all night, symbolizing that all evil plagues and epidemics will be run away, expecting the good luck of the new year.
Dumplings, known as "jiaozi" in ancient times, have the tradition of eating dumplings for New Year's Eve dinner in the north, but the custom of eating dumplings varies from place to place. In some places, dumplings are eaten on New Year's Eve, and in some places, dumplings are eaten on the first day of the first lunar month. Thirty nights when people in the North do not eat dumplings, they will feel that there is no atmosphere for New Year's Day. There is also the custom of eating dumplings every morning from the first to the fifth day of junior middle school in some mountainous areas in the north. Eating dumplings is a unique way of expressing people's wishes for good luck when they leave the old year and welcome the new year. From 11:00 p.m. to 1:00 a.m. on the next day, "Jiaozi" is the time when the New Year intersects with the old year. Dumpling means giving birth at a new age, and eating dumplings during the Spring Festival is considered a good luck. In addition, dumplings are shaped like Yuan Bao. Making dumplings means wrapping luck and eating dumplings symbolizes prosperity. Unlike in the north, the New Year's Eve dinner in the south usually has big fish, big meat and a feast of delicacies. The homonym of "fish" and "Yu" symbolizes "more than lucky celebration". It also symbolizes the happiness of life, "more than every year".
Southern Lantern Festival food is called "Tangyuan". In Jiangsu, Shanghai and other places, it is customary to eat Tangyuan on the morning of New Year's Day. The Lantern Festival is called Shangyuan Festival by Taoism. According to the Yuan Dynasty Yituzhen's "Girls" Ring Records quoted "Sanyu Tie" records: Chang'e flew to the moon, Yi missed sickness. On the fourteenth day and night of the first month, a boy called himself the envoy of Chang'e and said, "Madame knows your thoughts and can't get down. Tomorrow is the time of the full moon. You should use rice powder as a pill. You should have a reunion like the moon in the northwest of your room. It's called Madame's name. It can fall on March Eve." As Yi did, Chang'e came. It can be seen that eating Lantern Festival Lantern Festival is to take the auspicious meaning of "Tuan Tuan Ru Yue". During the reign of Kangxi in the Qing Dynasty, "Eight Treasures Lantern Festival" and "Ma Siyuan Lantern Festival" prevailed in the imperial and wild areas. In the early years of the Republic of China, Yuan Shikai also banned the chanting of the Lantern Festival because of the similarity between the Lantern Festival and Yuan Xiao.
看春晚：Look at Spring Festival Gala
The Spring Festival Gala has become a new folk custom for Chinese people. The old children see the Spring Festival Gala, and the middle-aged people see the Spring Festival gala as steady and steady.
拜年：Pay New Year call
New Year celebration is a cultural tradition inherited from ancient times. Visiting New Year during the Spring Festival is one of the traditional customs of the Spring Festival. It is a way for people to say goodbye to the old and greet the new and express good wishes to each other. With the development of the times, the custom of New Year's greeting has also been adding new contents and forms. The significance of New Year's greeting lies in visiting and contacting feelings between relatives and friends, congratulating each other on the New Year, expressing feelings between relatives and friends, and wishing them good luck in the new year's life.
New Year's Day, people get up early, wear the most beautiful clothes, dress neatly, go out to visit relatives and friends, exchange New Year's greetings, congratulations on the coming year. The popular New Year cards in modern society have been implemented in ancient China. As early as the Song Dynasty, special New Year cards have been used between the families of royal and noble scholar-bureaucrats and their relatives, which are called "famous thorns" or "name stickers".
Tiefu is a traditional Chinese custom. Every Spring Festival, every household has to paste the word "happiness" on the door, wall and lintel. Spring Festival sticking the word "Fu" is a folk custom for a long time. The word "luck" is now interpreted as "happiness", while in the past it refers to "luck" and "luck". Spring Festival paste "blessings", whether it is now or in the past, all place people's yearning for a happy life, but also wishes for a better future. In order to fully embody this desire and wish, the folk simply put the word "blessing" upside down to indicate that "happiness has fallen (arrived)" and "happiness has fallen (arrived)".
Spring Festival temple fair is an ancient traditional folk cultural activity. Spring Festival is commonly known as the Spring Festival. Apart from the general customs of the New Year, temple fairs were the main customs of the old Beijing New Year. With the development of the times, there will be a series of temple fairs all over the country every Spring Festival. Apart from the familiar "Changdian", the "Five Fairs of Wealth" (Junior 2-16), the "Dongyue Temple" (Junior 1-15), the "Baiyun Guan" (Junior 1-19), and the "Wansuishan Spring Festival Temple Fair" (Lunar New Year 1-16) are all famous temple fairs in China. New Year's features.
Yangko can be traced back to the early Ming Dynasty. At that time, in order to celebrate the succession of Zhao Tong, the second ancestor, to the title, Yangko was created and danced in court. It was very lively. From the beginning, Yangko began to be popular. The precursor of Yangko originated from agricultural activities, and it has evolved from a common singing activity to a dance form up to now. During the spring ploughing season, women and children, a large number of people went up to the mountains to transplant rice seedlings. For entertainment, people beat drums and gongs and competed to sing. Therefore, Yangko was first a form of singing, followed by dancing and drama, and began to be popular in all parts of China.
Stilt clubs are usually organized spontaneously and in series by the masses. On November and December of the first month, people began to step on the streets, which implies that people will register this year among the numerous folk flower fairs. The fifteenth day of the first month officially went to the streets until the end of the eighteenth party. At the meeting, big businesses along the way set up eight immortal tables in front of their doors, put tea and snacks on them, and set off firecrackers to express their gratitude. Stilts will stay here for a little while, or show their thanks.
Stilts are usually arranged in a single line with a long serpent array in the street, and in the busy and crowded areas, two-person parallel formation is adopted. Step into eight words. In the performance, there are small whirlwind, flower wings, kite turning over, big splitting and other difficult movements.
Stilt art is still organized and rehearsed in some rural areas during winter leisure. It can be seen in garden fairs and temple fairs everywhere in Beijing.
Lion dance is an excellent folk art in our country. Every Lantern Festival or celebration, people come to the lion dance to cheer up. This custom originated in the Three Kingdoms Period and became popular in the Northern and Southern Dynasties. It has a history of more than 1,000 years.
According to legend, it was first introduced from the Western Regions. Lions were the mounts of Manjusri Bodhisattvas. With the introduction of Buddhism into China, lion dancing activities were also introduced into China. The lion was a tribute brought back by Zhang Qian, who was sent by Emperor Wudi of Han Dynasty, together with peacocks. However, the skill of lion dance is derived from Xiliang's "masquerade", and some people believe that lion dance originated from the army in the fifth century, and then spread to the people. Both theories have their own basis. Today it is difficult to judge whether they are right or wrong. However, in the Tang Dynasty, lion dance became a popular activity among the court, army and people. Tang Duan An Festival "Yuefu Zaxun" said: "There are five lions, Gao Zhangyu, each dressed in five colors, each lion, there are twelve people, wearing red forehead, painting clothes, holding red Fuzi, known as Lion Lang, Taiping dance music." The poet Bai Juyi's poem "Xiliangjie" vividly depicts this: "Xiliangjie, Xiliangjie, fake beard man fake lion. Carved wood for the head silk tail, gold-plated eyes silver teeth. Fenxun sweater has two ears, such as from quicksand to ten thousand miles. The poem describes the lion dance at that time.
The lion is known as the king of beasts, and China is generally not affected by the lion, so the people have a cordial feeling for the lion, regard it as a symbol of courage and auspiciousness, and hope to use the image of lion to drive away evil spirits, resulting in lion-shaped repression or demonstration.
Chinese society has always been based on agriculture, with the change of solar terms and agricultural life, festivals or celebrations to greet gods. In these festivals, people in order to seek peace and tranquility in life, with gods or auspicious animals to drive away ghosts and entertain gods evolved, this form will gradually have the meaning of entertaining folk. With people's love for lions, they are not satisfied with the static image of lions on piers, eaves, stone fences, seals and New Year pictures. They want to make lions live, so they create a dance that simulates lion's behavior, and then improve and develop it into a unique art of the Chinese nation.
换桃符：Change peach character
Legend has it that there is a big peach tree on the Dushuo Mountain in the East China Sea. Its trunk bends and stretches for 3,000 miles. Its branches extend all the way to the ghost gate in the northeast. The ghosts living in the cave under the ghost gate come in and out from the door every day. There are two divine generals under the tree: Shen Cha and Yu Lei. The two gods will tie up the evil spirits of their victims with nets made of awn reeds and throw them away to feed a tiger whenever they find them. Since the Zhou Dynasty, the people used two six-inch long and three-inch wide peach boards to draw pictures or inscriptions of two gods, hanging on both sides of the door or bedroom door, in order to suppress evil spirits and pray for good luck. This is the Tao Fu. Ancient people also painted the tiger specially devouring ghosts on their second door, beside which there was a awn reed rope, which was used to suppress evil spirits and exorcise evil spirits and pray for good luck.
放鞭炮：Set off firecrackers
There is a saying of "open door firecrackers" among Chinese people. That is to say, when the new year comes, the first thing that every household opens its door is to set off firecrackers, so as to eliminate the old and welcome the new with the sound of beeping firecrackers. Firecrackers are Chinese specialties, also known as "firecrackers", "firecrackers", "firecrackers". Its origin is very early, and it has a history of more than two thousand years. On the evolution of firecrackers, "Popular Choreography Excellence" records: "Ancient firecrackers. They are all fired with real bamboo, so Tang poems are also called poles. Later generations rolled paper. They are called "firecrackers".
The original purpose of firecrackers is to welcome gods and expel ghosts. Later, with its strong festive color, it developed into a symbol of leaving the old and welcoming the new. Firecrackers can create a festive and lively atmosphere, is a holiday entertainment, can bring people joy and luck. Firecrackers have become an entertainment with national characteristics.